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Bonding Orbitals, VSEPR, and Intermolecular Forces

Bonding Orbitals, VSEPR, and Intermolecular Forces

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Molecular Orbitals
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These are formed when atomic orbitals overlap.
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Bonding Orbitals
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Diagrams that show specific energy levels that electrons occupy in a bond (similar to atomic configurations of atoms).
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Sigma (σ) Bond
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A bond that forms from the head-to-head overlap of two "s" atomic orbitals. It makes up a single covalent bond.
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Pi (π) Bond
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A bond that forms from the overlap of two "p" atomic orbitals. These help form double and triple covalent bonds.
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109.5º
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The ideal bond angle. It is the angle between each of the atoms in a tetrahedral molecule (like methane).
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Less than 109.5º
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The bond angle of water. Its bond angle deviates from the ideal bond angle.
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VSEPR Theory
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A system used to draw out the 3-dimensional structure of molecules. It is an acronym that stands for Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory.
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Hybridization
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A phenomenon found in bonding atoms where different atomic orbitals mix together to create the lowest energy state possible.
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Nonpolar Covalent Bonds
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Covalent bonds that equally share electrons between atoms.
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Polar Covalent Bonds
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Covalent bonds that unequally share electrons between atoms due an electronegativity difference between the atoms.
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Polar Molecule
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Molecules that, as a whole, are polar due the polarity of the bonds within the larger molecule.
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Dipole
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A polar molecule in which a positive electric charge is separated from a negative charge.
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van der Waals Forces
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A group of intermolecular forces that includes Dipole-Dipole interactions and London Dispersion Forces.
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Dipole-Dipole Interactions
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Attractive intermolecular forces caused by the interactions of the negative and positive ends of dipoles.
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London Dispersion Forces
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The weakest intermolecular force that is caused by the attractions of temporary dipoles in non-polar molecules.
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Hydrogen Bonds
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A type of intermolecular force that is caused by the attraction of the partially-negative end of a dipole and a partially-positive Hydrogen atom of a separate molecule.
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Network Solids
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A chemical compound in which the atoms are bonded by covalent bonds in a continuous network.
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