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Cell Energy: Photosynthesis and Respiration Terms

Cell Energy: Photosynthesis and Respiration Terms

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ATP
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The energy currency of the cell. It contains energy derived from food and is used in almost all cellular processes.
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ADP
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A lower-energy version of ATP that has one less phosphate group than ATP.
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Chemosynthesis
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The process of building energy-containing molecules like fat and glucose from chemical energy (ATP).
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Photosynthesis
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The process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water.
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Chlorophyll
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A green pigment, present in all green plants and in cyanobacteria, responsible for the absorption of light to provide energy for photosynthesis.
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Thylakoids
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Membrane-bound sacs that compose the grana in chloroplasts. Their membranes contain chlorophyll.
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Light-Dependent Reactions
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The first stage of photosynthesis where energy from sunlight is used to break down water molecules.
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Light-Independent Reactions
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The second stage of photosynthesis where the energy previously derived from sunlight is used to build sugar molecules out of carbon dioxide.
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Photosystem
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A biochemical mechanism in plants by which chlorophyll absorbs light energy for photosynthesis. There are two types (I and II).
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Photosynthetic Electron Transport Chain
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A series of membrane-bound proteins in the thylakoid that are responsible for moving electrons across the membrane to ATP synthase.
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ATP Synthase
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A membrane-bound protein responsible for generating ATP from ADP via a Hydrogen gradient across the Thylakoid or the inner mitochondrial membrane.
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Calvin Cycle
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A set of light-independent chemical reactions that use the energy from photosynthesis and carbon dioxide to generate glucose.
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Cellular Respiration
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An aerobic series of steps and chemical reactions in mitochondria used to break down sugars and carbon-based molecules to produce ATP.
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Aerobic Process
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Processes that require oxygen.
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Anaerobic Processes
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Processes that do not require oxygen.
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Glycolysis
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An anaerobic process that happens before cellular respiration or fermentation can occur - it creates 2 ATP and 2 Pyruvate molecules per molecule of glucose.
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Krebs Cycle
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The first part of cellular respiration where ATP and high energy molecules like NADH are generated from glucose-derived carbon molecules.
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Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain
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A series of membrane-bound proteins in the inner mitochondrial membrane that are responsible for moving electrons across the membrane to ATP synthase.
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Fermentation
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A process that occurs after glycolysis in the absence of oxygen (when cellular respiration cannot occur). It regenerates NAD+ so that energy can be made through further glycolysis.
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Lactic Acid
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A side product of fermentation that is created during oxygen debt in human cells. This product is what creates the burning sensation in muscles during exercise.
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Ethanol Fermentation
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A type of fermentation that is utilized in a variety of cells including yeast. This process is used in the making of bread and beer.
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