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Civil Rights Movement: Key People

Civil Rights Movement: Key People

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Martin Luther King, Jr.
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advocated non-violence in the Civil Rights Movement; famous for "I Have A Dream" speech
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Rosa Parks
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refused to give up her bus seat to a white man, sparking the Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1955
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Malcolm X
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urged followers to defend themselves against racism "by any means necessary," including violence
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Stokely Carmichael
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originated the black nationalism slogan "black power;" advocated self-defense instead of nonviolence
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Thurgood Marshall
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the first black justice of the U.S. Supreme Court; outspoken liberal unafraid to dissent
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Medgar Evers
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field secretary of the NAACP; assassinated by a white segregationist
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Jesse Jackson
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worked with MLK Jr at the Southern Christian Leadership Conference; two-time presidential nominee
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Fannie Lou Hamer
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helped organize the 1964 Freedom Summer; Vice President of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
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Emmett Till
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14-year-old African-American boy who was murdered after flirting with a white woman
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W.E.B. Du Bois
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advocated equal economic and social rights for African-Americans; helped found the NAACP in 1909
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Booker T. Washington
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advocated equal economic rights for African-Americans, believing it would lead to social equality
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James L. Farmer
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initiated and organized the 1961 Freedom Ride, leading to desegregation of interstate transportation
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A. Philip Randolph
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organized first black labor union; led the 1963 March on Washington
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