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Enzyme Terms and Facts

Enzyme Terms and Facts

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Tags: science   biology   high school   biochemistry   ngss   ap   hs-ls1-7   ls1-7   enzyme   catalyst  

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Enzyme
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A biological catalyst that acts to bring about a specific reaction. It is not consumed or changed during a reaction.
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Activation Energy
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The property of a chemical reaction that is reduced by an enzyme or catalyst; it is the amount of energy that must be overcome for a reaction to occur.
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∆PE or ∆G (Change in Energy)
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The difference in potential energy between the products and reactants of a reaction. This value is not changed by a enzyme or catalyst.
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Induced Fit Model
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The theory that when an enzyme binds to the appropriate substrate, subtle changes in the 3º and 4º structure of the active site occur to accommodate the substrate.
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Lock & Key Model
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The theory that when an enzyme binds to the appropriate substrate, no changes are needed in the 3º and 4º structure of the active site occur to accommodate the substrate.
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Active Site
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A region on an enzyme that binds to a substrate or other substance during a reaction.
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Substrate
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A molecule upon which an enzyme acts. This can also be thought of as a reactant that is changed into a product through catalysis.
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Allosteric Site
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A region on an enzyme that is similar to an active site but is primarily used to regulate the activity of an enzyme.
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Ribozyme
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An RNA molecule capable of acting as an enzyme.
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Cofactors
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A chemical compound that binds to an enzyme so that the enzyme can correctly function. They can be considered "helper molecules" that assist in reactions.
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Prosthetic Group
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A type of cofactor that binds extremely tightly to an enzyme.
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Coenzyme
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A type of organic cofactor or prosthetic group. This class includes organic molecules like biotin and vitamins.
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Catalyst
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A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction (by lowering activation energy) without itself undergoing any permanent chemical change.
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