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Gametogenesis and Reproduction Terms

Gametogenesis and Reproduction Terms

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Tags: science   ela   biology   rst.9-10.4   rst.11-12.4   high school   reproduction   ngss   hs-ls1-4   ls1-4   gametes   gametogenesis  

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Somatic Cell
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Any cell of a living organism other than the reproductive cells.
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Gamete
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A mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction.
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Homologous Chromosomes
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A set of one maternal chromosome and one paternal chromosome that pair up with each other inside a cell during meiosis. They code for the same genes.
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Autosomes
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Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome. There are 22 pairs of these in human cells (or 44 chromosomes total).
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Sex Chromosomes
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A chromosome involved with determining the sex of an organism, typically one of two kinds (X or Y).
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Sexual Reproduction
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The production of new living organisms by combining genetic information from two individuals of different sexes.
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Fertiliziation
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The fusion of male and female gametes to form a zygote.
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Diploid (2n) Cell
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A cell that contains two sets of chromosomes (46 total chromosomes in a human cell).
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Haploid (n) Cell
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A cell that contains one set of chromosomes (23 total chromosomes in a human cell).
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Meiosis
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A type of cell division that results in four haploid cells from one diploid parent cell, as in the production of gametes.
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Gametogenesis
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The production of gametes (including meiosis and maturation of sex cells).
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Sperm
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The mature male gamete that contains genetic material. It has a flagellum for movement and an acrosomal head to penetrate the female ovum.
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Ovum (Egg)
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The mature female gamete which has multiple layers for protection and contains genetic material in addition other structures.
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Polar Bodies
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Tiny cells which are created as byproducts and subsequently discarded during the maturation or meiosis of the female primary oocyte into an ovum.
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