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Human Digestive System - Part 2

Human Digestive System - Part 2

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Alimentary canal (also called digestive tract)
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hollow tube from mouth to anus that functions in digestion, absorption & elimination
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Duodenum
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region of small intestine where bile & pancreatic juice are secreted to prepare food for absorption
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Jejunum
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main site of nutrient and water absorption in the small intestine
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Ileum
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section of small intestine where vitamin B12, bile salts, and any remaining nutrients are absorbed
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Cecum
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pouch at the start of the large intestine that receives waste material from the small intestine
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Sphincter
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ring-like muscles that control the movement of food material along the digestive tract
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Mucosa
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moist inner lining of the organs that secretes mucus, digestive enzymes, and/or hormones
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Gastric mucus
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a bicarbonate-rich solution coating the stomach to protect it from its own acid
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Hydrochloric acid
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strong acid produced in the stomach that helps digest food and kill harmful bacteria
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Bicarbonate
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alkaline substance in pancreatic juice that neutralizes acidic material from the stomach
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Digestion
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process of breaking down food and converting it into substances that the body can use
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Amylase
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any digestive enzyme that helps break down carbohydrates
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Lipase
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any digestive enzyme that helps break down fats
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Protease
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any digestive enzyme that helps break down proteins
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Gut flora
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microorganisms in the intestines that help with digestion and inhibit growth of harmful bacteria
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Bolus
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soft, round mass of chewed food
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Peristalsis
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wave-like muscular contractions that propel food along the digestive tract
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Chyme
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acidic mixture of partially digested food that passes from stomach to small intestine
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Villi
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finger-like projections covering the intestinal mucosa that aid in absorption
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Microvilli
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tiny hair-like projections of the intestinal mucosa that increase surface area of absorptive cells
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