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Periodic Table Terms

Periodic Table Terms

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Periodic Table
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A chart of the known chemical elements arranged in order of atomic number
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Group (or Family)
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A vertical column of elements on the periodic table that share similar chemical properties.
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Period
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A horizontal row on the periodic table where all of the elements share the same number of electron shells in their atoms.
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Metals
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Elements that share physical properties like thermal and electrical conduction, ductility, and malleability.
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Nonmetals
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Elements that do not share physical properties with metals; includes the upper-right corner of the periodic table and Hydrogen.
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Alkali Metals
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Group 1A on the periodic table; includes Lithium, Sodium, and Potassium.
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Alkaline Earth Metals
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Group 2A on the periodic table; includes Beryllium, Magnesium, and Calcium.
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Halogens
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Group 7A on the periodic table; includes Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, and Iodine.
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Noble Gases
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Group 8A on the periodic table; includes Helium, Neon, and Argon. These elements are very unreactive.
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Valence Electrons
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Electrons in the outermost shell of an atom. These electrons are responsible for chemical reactivity and formation of ions.
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