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Periodic Table Terms and Trends

Periodic Table Terms and Trends

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Tags: science   ela   chemistry   rst.9-10.4   rst.11-12.4   high school   hs-ps1-2   ngss   ps1-2   chemical   periodic   table   trends   groups  

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Periodic Law
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States that the properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers. Also called Mendeleev's law.
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Metals
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Elements that readily forms positive ions and have metallic bonds. Described as a lattice of positive ions surrounded by a cloud of delocalized electrons. They conduct electricity and heat.
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Nonmetals
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Elements located in the upper-right portion of the periodic table that do not conduct heat or electricity. They are usually brittle.
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Metalloids
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Elements that share properties of both metals and nonmetals depending on their environmental conditions.
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Alkali Metals
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The Group 1A elements on the periodic table. They are very reactive with water and have 1 valence electron.
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Alkaline Earth Metals
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The Group 2A elements on the periodic table. They have 2 valence electrons.
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Halogens
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The Group 7A elements on the periodic table. These elements usually exist in nature as diatomic gases. They have 7 valence electrons.
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Noble Gases
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The Group 8A elements on the periodic table. They have 8 electrons (a complete octet), which makes them very stable and non-reactive.
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Representative Elements
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Groups 1A through 8A on the periodic table - these elements are very diverse.
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Transition Metals
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All of Group B on the periodic table. These atoms hold their valence electrons in the d-subshell and s-subshell.
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Lanthanide and Actinide Series
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The two additional rows of elements you usually see below the periodic table. These elements are characterized by their f-subshell.
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Atomic Radius
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The size of an atom (of a particular element). Increases from the top-right to the bottom-left of the periodic table.
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Ion
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An atom or polyatomic molecule that holds a negative or positive charge. Formed by gaining or losing electrons.
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Cation
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A positively-charged atom or polyatomic molecule.
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Anion
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A negatively-charged atom or polyatomic ion.
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Ionization Energy
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The amount of energy necessary to remove an electron from an atom. Increases from the bottom-left to the top-right of the periodic table.
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Electronegativity
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The amount of pull an atom has on the electrons of a chemical bond. Increases from the bottom-left to the top-right of the periodic table.
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Electron Affinity
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The amount of energy released when an atom gains an electron. Increases from the bottom-left to the top-right of the periodic table.
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Group or Family
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A vertical column on the periodic table.
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Period
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A horizontal row on the periodic table.
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