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Periodic Table Trends and Orbitals

Periodic Table Trends and Orbitals

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Tags: science   chemistry   cusd   periodic table   hs-ps1-2   ngss   atomic   trends   orbitals   acadec  

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Ionization Energy
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The amount of energy necessary to remove an electron from an atom (and thus form a cation). Increases as you go up and right on the periodic table.
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Cation
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A positively-charged ion formed when one or more electrons are removed from an atom.
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Anion
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A negatively-charged ion formed when one or more electrons are acquired by an atom.
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Ion
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An atom that carries any type of charge.
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Atomic Radius
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An approximation of the size of an atom. Increases as you go down and left on the periodic table.
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Electronegativity
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The amount of pull an atom has on electrons; this contributes to the gain of electrons and the formation of anions. Increases as you go up and right on the periodic table.
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Photoelectric Effect
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The phenomenon in which metals will release electrons when exposed to natural light.
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Ultraviolet Catastrophe
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The phenomenon in which blackbody radiation from a metal increases proportionally to temperature up until a certain maxima and then falls.
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Quantization
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Describes electrons in an atom as existing in defined energy levels called orbitals or quanta.
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Continuous
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A non-quantized state in which electrons are freely moving around an atom at non-defined distances from the nucleus.
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Bohr Model
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A model of the atom that utilizes the idea of quantization in its description of electrons and their orbitals around an atomic nucleus.
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Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
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States that you cannot simultaneously know the velocity and position of an electron in an atom.
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Schrödinger Model
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A model of the atom that utilizes the Schrödinger Equation and reconciles the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principal to find the probability that electrons will exist in a certain space around a nucleus.
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Gaussian Surface
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A closed surface in three-dimensional space through which the flux of a vector field is calculated; usually the gravitational field, the electric field, or magnetic field.
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Atomic Orbitals
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Specific Pathways or Probability Fields (Spheres, Lobes, and Rings) in which electrons travel.
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