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Quantum Mechanics and Electron Configuration Terms

Quantum Mechanics and Electron Configuration Terms

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Tags: science   ela   chemistry   rst.9-10.4   rst.11-12.4   high school   hs-ps1-2   ngss   ps1-2   electron   configuration   quantum   atom   mechanics  

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Energy Levels
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Specific orbits around the nucleus of an atom that represent fixed energies. These are also called "shells."
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Quantum
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The amount of energy necessary to move an electron from a lower energy level to a higher energy level.
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Quantum Mechanical Model
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The combination of equations and theories that comprise the modern understanding of how electrons function and move in an atom.
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Atomic Orbital
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Somewhat defined regions around the nucleus which contain moving electrons. They can come in different shapes.
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Electron Configuration
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A system used to describe how and where electrons exist around the atomic nucleus.
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Aufbau Principle
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States that electrons will fill the lowest possible energy level or shell first.
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Pauli Exclusion Principle
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States that no two electrons in an atom can have the same four quantum numbers (or exist in the same place at once).
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Hund's Rule
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Electrons will fill to create the max number of half-filled or fully-filled orbitals.
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Amplitude
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The maximum displacement or distance moved by a point on a vibrating body or wave measured from its equilibrium position.
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Wavelength (λ)
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Distance between corresponding points of two consecutive waves.
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Frequency (ν)
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Number of waves that pass a fixed point in unit time.
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Hertz (Hz)
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The units of frequency which are equal to 1/s.
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Electromagnetic Radiation
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A kind of radiation including visible light, radio waves, gamma rays, and X-rays, in which electric and magnetic fields vary simultaneously.
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Speed of Light (c)
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Equal to the frequency times the wavelength of light. Also equal to 300,000,000 m/s.
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Spectrum
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All of the different frequencies of light that make up electromagnetic radiation. Can be seen when light passes through a prism or raindrop to form a rainbow.
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Atomic Emission Spectrum
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The spectrum of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation emitted due to an atom or molecule making a transition from a high energy state to a lower energy state.
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Atomic Absorption Spectrum
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The spectrum of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation absorbed due to an atom or molecule making a transition from a low energy state to a higher energy state.
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Ground State
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When an electron is in its non-excited and lowest-energy state.
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Photons
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Particles released from atoms as they move from a higher energy level to a lower energy level.
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Heisenberg Uncertainty Principal
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States that one cannot simultaneously know the location and momentum (mass and velocity) of an electron in an atom.
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