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The Cell Cycle and Chromosome Structure Terms

The Cell Cycle and Chromosome Structure Terms

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Tags: science   ela   biology   rst.9-10.4   rst.11-12.4   high school   mitosis   cell cycle   chromosome   ngss   terms   hs-ls1-1   ls1-1   structure  

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Cell Cycle
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The series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication (replication) that produces two daughter cells.
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Mitosis (M)
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The last stage of the cell cycle (following Interphase) where the cell divides its DNA, cytoplasm, and organelles into two equivalent daughter cells.
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Cytokinesis
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The last step of mitosis where the two daughter cells completely separate and split organelles, genetic material, and cytoplasm.
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Gap 1
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The first step of Interphase where the cell grows and prepares to replicate its DNA. It must pass a checkpoint before moving to the S phase.
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Synthesis
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The 2nd stage of Interphase where the genetic material is duplicated (also known as replication).
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Interphase (I)
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A series of steps that must occur before Mitosis can occur (including growth and DNA replication).
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Gap 2
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After Synthesis finishes, this step occurs. It is where the cell prepares to enter Mitosis by growing in size and making sure DNA is correctly replicated.
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Chromosome
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An extremely condensed form of DNA that is replicated and passed on to daughter cells during the cell cycle. There are 46 of these in human somatic cells.
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Chromatin
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A compacted form of DNA which gains its ability to condense from histone interactions.
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Histones
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Structures that the DNA double helix wraps around to become more compact.
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Double Helix
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The twisting ladder structure that DNA takes due to the interactions of its molecules.
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Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
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The smallest form of inheritable genetic material in the nucleus. Made up of phosphate groups, nucleotides, and deoxyribose sugars.
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Chromatid
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One-half of a chromosome - it plays a very important role during mitosis.
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Centromere
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The region of a chromosome that holds two sister chromatids together.
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Telomeres
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The highly-condensed, protective ends of the chromosome.
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Prophase
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The first part of mitosis where the chromosomes form, the nuclear membrane breaks down, and the centrioles begin to migrate to opposite poles of the cell.
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Metaphase
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The second part of mitosis where the chromosomes align along the metaphase plate (which is where the spindle fibers attach).
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Anaphase
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The third part of mitosis where disjunction (separation of chromatids) occurs.
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Telophase
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The fourth part of mitosis where two distinct nuclear membranes start to form and the spindle apparatus disappears. It is followed by Cytokinesis.
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