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The Cell Theory and Organelles

The Cell Theory and Organelles

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Tags: science   ela   biology   rst.9-10.4   rst.11-12.4   ngss   hs-ls1-1   ls1-1   cell theory   organelle  

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Cell Theory
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States that organisms are composed of cells, cells originate from other cells, and that the cell is the basic functional unit of life.
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Cytoplasm
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The gel-like substance enclosed within both the cell membrane and the cell's organelles.
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Organelles
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Specialized sub-cellular structures that perform individual and critical functions within a cell.
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Prokaryotic Cells
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A type of cell that does not contain a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles. Its DNA is located in the cytoplasm of the cell. Compose only unicellular organisms.
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Eukaryotic Cells
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Cells that contain a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. Compose either multicellular or unicellular organisms.
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Cytoskeleton
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A system of fibers and proteins that are responsible for the structure, organization, and motility of cells.
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Nucleus
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The largest organelle in a eukaryotic cell - it contains the genetic information (DNA) of the cell.
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Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
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A large, highly-folded organelle that is responsible for producing proteins and lipids, detoxifying the cell, and sending materials to the Golgi Apparatus.
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Ribosome
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Small organelles responsible for the process of translation (turning RNA into Proteins by connecting amino acids together). Composed of rRNA and proteins.
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Golgi Apparatus
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An organelle composed of membrane-bound sacs stacked on top of one another. Responsible for modifying, sorting, and delivering proteins.
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Vesicles
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Short-lived, small membrane-bound vessels that transport materials around the cell.
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Mitochondria
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The organelles responsible for producing energy (ATP) in the cell through a series of complex chemical reactions. Have two separate membranes.
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Vacuole
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A membrane-bound sac responsible for storing materials in the cell.
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Lysosomes
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Membrane-bound organelles that contain enzymes used to breakdown materials (including bacteria and viruses).
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Centrioles
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Organelles made of microtubules that are used in flagella structure and may be important during cell division.
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Cell Wall
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Surrounds the cell membrane in plants, algae, fungi, and bacteria, but not animals. Provides additional structural support.
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Chloroplasts
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Organelles that perform photosynthesis in all plant cells (and some other types of cells). Have their own ribosomes and DNA and share biological similarities to mitochondria.
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