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The Nervous System - Vocab

The Nervous System - Vocab

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Tags: science   anatomy   high school   physiology   nervous system   neurons   ngss   neuroscience   hs-ls1-1   hs-ls4-1   ls4   ls1   neuro  

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Cerebrum
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Largest part of the brain that is responsible for voluntary or conscious movements.
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Cerebellum
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Coordinates and balances the actions of muscles and skilled movements.
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Brain Stem
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Connects the brain to the spinal cord, and is made up of the pons, medulla, and midbrain
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cell body
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part of the neuron that contains the nucleus
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dendrites
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part of the neuron that takes information to the cell body
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axon
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part of the neuron that takes information away from the cell body
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synapse
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the space between two neurons through which information flows
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sensory neuron
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takes in information from the outside world
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interneuron
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forms a link between a sensory and motor neuron; found entirely within the central nervous system
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motor neuron
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carries impulses from the central nervous system to a muscle, gland or other tissue
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Axon Terminal
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Branch of the axon where neurotransmitters are released into the synapse.
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Reflex Arc
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Information taken from a sensory neuron, to the interneurons in the spine, and quickly back to an effector muscle.
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Neurotransmitter
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Variety of molecules within axon terminals that are released into the synapse when a neuron fires.
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Parasympathetic System
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A division of the autonomic nervous system that allows the body to "rest and digest".
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Sympathetic system
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A division of the autonomic nervous system that prepares the body for a "fight or flight" response.
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Autonomic Nervous System
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Part of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary responses, and contains the somatic and parasympathetic systems.
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Somatic Nervous System
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A part of the peripheral nervous system that is responsible for voluntary muscle movements as well as the reflex arc.
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Hypothalamus
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Part of the brain that recognizes and controls hunger, thirst, fatigue, anger, and body temperature.
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Central Nervous System (CNS)
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This division of the nervous system contains the brain and spinal cord
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Peripheral Nervous System
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This division of the nervous system contains the neurons and glia that are outside of the CNS
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Na+
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Type of ion found in high concentrations outside of axon when a neuron is at rest
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K+
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Type of ion found in high concentrations inside of the axon when a neuron is at rest
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Astrocytes
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CNS glial cells that maintain appropriate chemical environments for nerve impulses, and also provide nutrients to CNS neurons
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Oligodendrocytes
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CNS glial cells that form support structures for neurons and produce myelin for the axons of CNS cells
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Microglia
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CNS glial cells that protect CNS neurons from disease
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Schwann Cells
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PNS glial cells that surround axons of PNS neurons to support regeneration and produce myelin
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Corpus Callosum
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The band of nerve fibers that allow the left and right hemispheres of the cerebrum to communicate
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Thalamus
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Part of the brain that receives messages from sensory receptors and relays the information to the proper region of the cerebrum
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Refractory Period
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The time it takes for the axon to repolarize before it can send another nerve impulse
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Nerve Impulse
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When sodium channels along the axon open, allowing an electrical charge of -70 mv to occur
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