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Traits, Heredity, and Genetics Terms

Traits, Heredity, and Genetics Terms

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Tags: science   biology   high school   genetics   ngss   hs-ls1-4   ls1-4   traits   heredity  

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Trait
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A distinct variant of a phenotypic character of an organism that may be inherited and is hereditary.
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Genetics
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The study of heredity and the variation of inherited characteristics.
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Purebred
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When the offspring of an organism are genetically uniform due to generations of self-breeding or extremely selective breeding.
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Cross
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When two organisms are mated together to produce offspring.
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Mendel's First Law
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The Law of Segregation. States that during the production of gametes the two copies of each hereditary factor segregate so that offspring acquire one factor from each parent.
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Gene
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A unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring.
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Allele
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One of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome.
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Homozygous
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A genetic condition where an individual inherits the same alleles for a particular gene from both parents.
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Heterozygous
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A genetic condition where an individual inherits different alleles from each parent for a particular gene.
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Genome
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The complete set of genes or genetic material present in a cell or organism.
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Genotype
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The genetic makeup of an individual organism that is made up of genes that code for many different traits.
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Phenotype
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The set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from its genotype.
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Dominant Allele
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The allele that is expressed when two alleles are present.
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Recessive Allele
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The allele that is not expressed when in the presence of a dominant allele.
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Punnett Square
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A diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment.
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Monohybrid Cross
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A mating between individuals who differ at one specific genetic locus (or trait).
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Testcross
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When you mate an organism of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive organism in hopes of determining the unknown genotype.
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Dihybrid Cross
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A mating between individuals who differ at two specific genetic loci (or traits).
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Mendel's Second Law
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The Law of Independent Assortment. States that allele pairs separate independently during the formation of gametes.
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Probability
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The extent to which something is probable; the likelihood of something happening or being the case.
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Crossing Over
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The exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes in Prophase I, resulting in a mixture of parental characteristics in offspring.
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Genetic Linkage
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The tendency of genes that are located proximal to each other on a chromosome to be inherited together during meiosis.
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